Smokers who want to use their smoking cessation devices at the three major retailers will have to wear smoke detectors at checkout.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced the new rules Thursday.
The rule, issued after an ongoing state of emergency, prohibits smoking in enclosed retail areas, including restaurants and gas stations, but not bars, theaters and bars.
The new rules also apply to people using indoor air purifiers, smoke detectors and portable smoke detectors that can be used in indoor workplaces.
The rules also limit indoor air pollution from air conditioners to 15 parts per billion.
Smokers could also be fined for failing to comply with the rules, the CDC said.
The agency said people can get a temporary waiver from the rule by filling out an online form.
The federal government has also lifted restrictions on indoor air testing in a few states, including Alaska, Hawaii and Montana.